4B | Bulk Materials Handling Equipment

4B | Bulk Materials Handling Equipment

4B Australian Sales Partner

4B specialise in manufacturing high quality, technologically advanced material handling & electronic components. As the Australian sales partner, we have access to and support the full range of hazard monitoring systems and electronic components.

4B provides an extensive range of ATEX / IECEx approved hazard monitoring systems, misalignment switches and bearing temperature monitors and level controls. We have many customers in the bulk-material handling industry and you can rest assured that we will help you choose and implement the right solutions.


  • Hazard Monitoring Systems
  • Bearing Temperature Sensors
  • Misalignment Monitors
  • Speed Switches
  • Inductive Sensors
  • Junction Boxes
  • Level Indicators

Buy 4B Components Online

You'll find our most popular 4B products to browse and purchase on our website. Alternatively, browse the 4B catalogue to view the full range of products

Bucket Elevator and Conveyor Glossary

There is a lot of technical terminology to describe equipment and components in the bulk-materiel handling industry, which can be daunting even for those that have been around for many years.

4B have documented the most common terminology with a brief explanation of each.

4B Technical Glossary


Wearing away by rubbing, scraping.


The bonding strength between two materials.


The exposure to an environment for a period of time.

Arc of contact

The circumferential portion of a pulley which is engaged by a belt.

Belt clamp

Beams or metal plates secured transversely on both sides of belt end(s) to hold ends in a desired position.

Belt cleaning device

A scraper or rotating or washing device pressed against the belt surface to remove material stuck to the belt.

Belt fastener

A device for holding two ends of a conveyor belt together.

Belt modulus

The force per unit width of belt required to produce a stated percentage of elongation.

Belt sag

The amount of vertical deflection of a conveyor belt from a straight line between idlers, usually expressed as a percentage of the centre to centre spacing of the idlers.

Belt slip

The speed differential between the belt and the pulley surface.

Belt training idler

An idler having a belt-actuated swivel mechanism to automatically control side drifting of a conveyor belt.

Belt turnover

A system of idlers to turn a belt over.

Bending modulus

The force required to induce bending around a specified radius and, hence, a measure of stiffness.

Bend pulley

A pulley used to change the direction of a belt.

Bias cut

A cut of a textile material or belt ends made diagonally at an angle less than 90 degrees - usually 30° - to the longitudinal axis.

Binder warp yarn

One of the warp systems in a straight warp fabric interlaced with the filling yarn to provide the strength to hold mechanical fasteners.


Migration to the surface of plasticizer, waxes or similar materials to form a film or beads. See also Bloom.


A raised spot on the surface or a separation between layers usually forming a void or air-filled space in the vulcanized conveyor belt.

Booster drive

Used in some long conveyors to reduce the power/tension at the drive pulley.

Bottom cover

The non-carrying belt side towards the pulleys.


An extra ply for shock absorption to minimize gouging.

Bucket elevator belt

A transversely rigid belt with buckets attached, for vertical conveying.


A machine equipped with three or more heavy drums revolving in opposite directions.


The material load on the belt, given in tons per hour (t/h).


The fabric, cord and/or metal reinforcing section of a belt, as distinguished from the rubber cover.

Catenary idler

A type of flexible belt-carrying idler with ends supported in pivoted stands.  The tube or rollers sag under the weight of the load to form trough.


The distance between the centre of two pulleys or idlers.  Sometimes also called centres or centre distance or conveyor length.


A device for removing adherent material from the belt


Transverse raised sections on a conveyor belt to stabilize material carried up an incline.

Cord fabric

The fabric elongation is adjusted by means of the weft yarn twist.

Compression set

The deformation in a material remaining after it has been subjected to and released from a compressive force.

Counter weight

The weight applied to the take-up assembly to maintain proper belt tension.


The outer rubber (or PVC) components of a belt.


A sharp break or fissure in the surface. See also "Wrinkle".


The action of a belt alternately losing speed on the driving pulley and gaining speed on the driven pulley.


The waviness of the yarn in a woven fabric or the difference in distance between two points on a yarn as it lies in a fabric and the same two points when the yarn has been removed and straightened.  Expressed as a percentage of the distance between the two points as the yarn lies in the fabric.

Crowned pulley

A pulley with a greater diameter at the centre, or other points, than at the edges.

Cut edge

The uncovered edge of a belt, created by cutting after vulcanization.


A deleterious change in the chemical structure of a material.


The separation of layers of material.


A yarn sizing system for continuous filament synthetic fibres on the basis of the weight in grams of 9000 meters of the yarn.


The ratio of the mass of a body to its volume or the mass per unit volume of the substance. For ordinary practical purposes, density and specific gravity may be regarded as equivalent.

Dipped fabric

Coated with rubber compound by passing through a rubber solution and drying.


A short section of belting mechanically spliced into a length of belting and removed when the take-up allowance is exceeded.


An apparatus capable of inducing various loads for evaluation of dynamic belting properties.

Electrical conductivity

A measure of how well a material accommodates the transport of electric charge, measured in Ohm (Ω).

Endless length

The length of a closed belt (without splice allowances).


Energy optimized belt


A process whereby rubber is forced through a shaping orifice.

Eytelwein's equation

Determines the optimum difference between the forces F1 and F2 without belt slip.


The weakening of a material occurring when repeated application of stress causes permanent strain.

Feeder belt

A belt that discharges material onto another conveyor belt.


A continuous fibre of very high length.

Fire resistance

Retards the burning action of fire or flame. Achieved by adding fire retardants to the compound.


The resistance to motion due to the contact of surfaces


The thickness of a belt or its individual elements.


The effect of sharp heavy material falling onto a conveyor belt cover to loosen or tear out pieces of the cover.

Gravity take-up

A mechanical system that adjusts for the stretch or shrinking of a conveyor belt automatically by a weighted pulley in the system.


Degree of resistance to indentation

Head pulley

The pulley at the discharge end of the conveyor

Hooke's Law

Hooke's law of elasticity states that if a force (F) is applied to an elastic spring, its extension is linearly proportional to its tensile stress σ and modulus of elasticity (E): ΔL= 1/E × F × L/A = 1/E × L × σ

Hysteresis loss

A loss of mechanical energy due to successive deformation and relaxation, measured by the area between the deformation and relaxation stress-strain curves.


A non-powered roller supporting the belt


A stroke of a body dropping on the belt

Impact idler

A belt idler having a resilient roll covering, resilient moulded elastomer rings, springs or other means of absorbing impact energy at the place where material falls onto the belt.

Impact resistance

The relative ability of a conveyor belt assembly to absorb impact loading without damage to the belt. See also "transverse reinforcement".


The connection of two belt ends


A trademark for aramid


A smooth or embossed covering on a pulley to increase friction between belt and pulley.


Low rolling resistance

Maximum tension

The highest tension occurring in any portion of the belt under operating conditions

Mechanical fastener

Any mechanical device used to join the ends of belting.

Modulus of elasticity

The force divided by the percent elongation to cause the elongation.

Moulded edge

A solid rubber belt edge formed in a mould.


A trademark for polyamide.

Ozone cracking

Cracks caused by exposure to an atmosphere containing ozone.

Over end discharge

A discharge over the head of the conveyor

Payne effect

Is observed under cyclic loading conditions with small strain amplitudes, and is manifest as a dependence of the viscoelastic storage modulus on the amplitude of the applied strain.

Permanent elongation

Elongation permanently removed from belting when it is first used


Usually the quality or condition of allowing passage of air through a steel cord to identify the degree of rubberisation.


A suspension of a finely divided polymer (PVC) in a plasticizer.


A layer of fabric in a belt.


The minimum belt breaking strength (DIN) of a belt in Newtons per millimetre of belt width.

In the USA sometimes used as a term for the working tension.

Regenerative conveyor 

A conveyor for which the head is at a substantially lower altitude than the tail (downhill conveying), generating power.

Return idler

Part of a conveyor's return run.

Safety factor

A multiplier applied to the calculated maximum force to which a conveyor belt splice (as the weakest link in a conveyor belt) will be subjected. A factor of safety accounts for imperfections in materials, flaws in assembly, material degradation, and uncertainty in load estimates.

Note: In the USA usually the safety factor is related to the belt but not to the splice.

Screw take-up

A take-up for a conveyor system in which movement of a pulley-bearing block is accomplished by means of a screw.


If set under fire the belt will generate gases that extinguish the fire.

Shelf storage life

The period of time prior to use during which a product retains its intended performance capability. Important for (uncured) splicing material.

Shuttle conveyor

A belt conveyor having over end discharge, the whole being mounted on a travelling carriage capable of being shuttled backwards and forwards.

Skim coat

A layer of rubber material laid on a fabric but not forced into the weave. Normally laid on a frictioned fabric.

Skirt board

In a conveyor system, the vertical or inclined plates located longitudinally and closely above the belt to confine the conveyed material.


Grinding equipment to bevel belt ends for an overlap splice.  There are sanding belt, drum and disk skivers in use.

Slab belting

Belting made in wide widths and long lengths for later slitting into narrower widths and cutting into shorter lengths.

Slope belt

A conveyor belt used to carry material along an inclined flight.

Snub pulley

A non-driven pulley located close to the drive pulley to provide a greater arc of contact around the drive pulley.

Solid woven

A single ply ("monoply") interwoven fabric.

Splice allowance

Additional length required to make a splice.


A field splicing engineer.

Straight warp

Made of high tenacy polyester fibres for the warp and weft polyamide yarns, both held together by a polyamide composite yarn.

Tail pulley

The pulley near the loading end of the conveyor system

Take-up pulley

A pulley which can move in space in order to maintain relatively constant tension.

Tensile member

The fabric, cord and/or metal reinforcing section of a belt, as distinguished from the rubber cover.


Stress on the belt tending to cause extension.

Tie gum

A thin sheet of unvulcanised rubber inserted between plies in vulcanized repairs of splices.

Training idler

An idler mounted on a mechanical device, actuated by the belt moving against it to make the belt run straight.

Transition distance

The distance between the last fully troughed idler and the flat driving or discharge pulley.

Transverse reinforcement

An additional layer of single polyamide cords in custom-made pitch and diameter for increased rip and impact resistance.


A device for discharging material from a belt.


The property of a belt that permits it to conform to the contour of troughing idlers.


The property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when being deformed. Viscoelasticity is the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside of an amorphous material.


The resistance of a material to flow under stress.


An irreversible process during which a rubber compound, through a change in its chemical structure, becomes elastic. See more.


A mobile curing machine for field splicing (also called press).


The lengthwise yarns in a woven fabric.


The crosswise yarns in a woven fabric.


An appearance usually resulting from curing with separation paper or cloth.

Young's modulus

The stress per unit strain for elastic materials.